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Charles Moore

Download PDF Notes for General Studies in IAS Mains: All Topics Covered


General Studies Notes for IAS Mains PDF 17




If you are preparing for the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) exam, you must be aware of the importance of General Studies (GS) for the Mains stage. GS is one of the most comprehensive and dynamic subjects that covers a wide range of topics from history to ethics. It requires a lot of reading, understanding, analysis and application of knowledge to answer the questions in the exam.




general studies notes for ias mains pdf 17


DOWNLOAD: https://www.google.com/url?q=https%3A%2F%2Fmiimms.com%2F2ucQTb&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AOvVaw2bw0sUP11gKlScnL2OlNjR



In this article, we will provide you with some useful tips on how to prepare GS for IAS Mains, as well as a link to download the General Studies Notes for IAS Mains PDF 17. This PDF contains concise and updated notes on all the topics covered in the GS syllabus for IAS Mains. You can use these notes as a reference material to revise and practice your GS concepts before the exam.


Introduction




What is IAS Mains?




The IAS exam is conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) every year to select candidates for various civil services posts in the central and state governments. The exam consists of three stages: Preliminary, Mains and Interview.


The Preliminary stage is a screening test that consists of two objective papers: General Studies Paper-I and General Studies Paper-II (also known as CSAT). The marks obtained in this stage are not counted for the final ranking, but only for qualifying for the Mains stage.


The Mains stage is the main exam that consists of nine descriptive papers: four General Studies Papers (GS-I, GS-II, GS-III and GS-IV), one Essay Paper, two Optional Papers (from a list of subjects given by UPSC) and two Language Papers (one English and one Indian language). The marks obtained in this stage are counted for the final ranking.


The Interview stage is the personality test that consists of an oral examination by a board of experts. The marks obtained in this stage are also counted for the final ranking.


Why is General Studies important for IAS Mains?




General Studies is important for IAS Mains because:



  • It accounts for 1000 marks out of the total 1750 marks in the Mains exam. This means that your performance in GS can make or break your chances of clearing the exam.



  • It tests your general awareness, analytical ability, critical thinking, problem-solving skills and ethical values. These are essential qualities for an effective civil servant.



  • It covers a wide range of topics that are relevant for the current affairs, national and international issues, governance and administration, development and social justice, science and technology, environment and ecology, ethics and integrity, etc. These are important areas for the civil services aspirants to be well-versed with.



  • It helps you to write better essays, answer the optional papers and face the interview with confidence and clarity. A good command over GS can enhance your overall performance in the exam.



How to prepare General Studies for IAS Mains?




Some of the tips on how to prepare GS for IAS Mains are:



  • Follow the UPSC syllabus and previous year question papers to understand the scope and pattern of GS questions. You can also refer to the UPSC answer keys and model answers to get an idea of how to write effective answers.



  • Read the NCERT textbooks from class 6 to 12 for the basic concepts and facts of GS topics. You can also read some standard reference books for each topic to get a deeper understanding and analysis.



  • Read the newspapers, magazines, reports, journals and websites regularly to keep yourself updated with the current affairs and issues related to GS topics. You can also make notes of important facts, data, events, opinions, etc. for revision.



  • Practice writing answers for GS questions in a time-bound manner. You can join a test series or a mock test platform to get feedback and improvement tips from experts and peers.



  • Revise your notes and books periodically to retain and recall the information. You can also use mnemonics, diagrams, charts, maps, etc. to aid your memory.



  • Discuss your doubts and queries with your mentors, teachers, friends or online forums. You can also participate in group discussions, debates, quizzes, etc. to enhance your communication and presentation skills.



General Studies Notes for IAS Mains PDF 17




In this section, we will provide you with a link to download the General Studies Notes for IAS Mains PDF 17. This PDF contains concise and updated notes on all the topics covered in the GS syllabus for IAS Mains. You can use these notes as a reference material to revise and practice your GS concepts before the exam.


The PDF is divided into six parts, corresponding to the six papers of GS in IAS Mains. Each part contains notes on various sub-topics under each paper. The notes are written in a simple and lucid language, with bullet points, tables, diagrams, maps, etc. to make them easy to understand and remember.


The PDF also contains some sample questions and answers for each paper, along with some tips and tricks on how to write effective answers. The PDF is designed to help you score high marks in GS in IAS Mains.


The link to download the General Studies Notes for IAS Mains PDF 17 is given below:


General Studies Notes for IAS Mains PDF 17


History




Ancient India




Some of the topics covered in this sub-topic are:



  • Sources of Ancient Indian History: Archaeological sources (coins, inscriptions, monuments, etc.) and literary sources (Vedic texts, epics, Puranas, Buddhist and Jain literature, etc.)



  • Prehistoric India: Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age), Neolithic (New Stone Age) and Chalcolithic (Copper Stone Age) cultures



  • Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, extent, urban planning, economy, society, religion, art and architecture, script and language, decline and legacy



  • Vedic Period: Early Vedic Period (Rig Vedic Period) and Later Vedic Period (Samhita Period); political, social, economic and religious features; emergence of varna system; rise of Mahajanapadas; development of literature



  • Jainism and Buddhism: Life and teachings of Mahavira and Buddha; spread of Jainism and Buddhism; sects and schools; contribution to art, architecture and literature; decline of Jainism and Buddhism



  • Mahajanapadas: Sixteen Mahajanapadas; rise of Magadha; Haryanka dynasty; Shishunaga dynasty; Nanda dynasty



and architecture; decline of Mauryan Empire


  • Post-Mauryan Period: Sunga dynasty; Kanva dynasty; Satavahana dynasty; Indo-Greek rulers; Kushana Empire; Shaka rulers; Parthian rulers



  • Gupta Empire: Chandragupta I; Samudragupta; Chandragupta II; Kumaragupta I; Skandagupta; administration; economy; society; religion; art and architecture; literature and science; decline of Gupta Empire



  • Harshavardhana: Rise and expansion of his empire; administration; economy; society; religion; art and architecture; literature and culture



  • South Indian Kingdoms: Sangam Age (Chera, Chola and Pandya kingdoms); Pallava dynasty; Chalukya dynasty; Rashtrakuta dynasty; Chola Empire



Medieval India




Some of the topics covered in this sub-topic are:



  • Early Medieval India: Tripartite struggle (Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties); Rajput kingdoms (Gurjara-Pratihara, Chauhan, Solanki, Paramara, etc.); Arab invasion of Sindh; Mahmud of Ghazni's raids



  • Delhi Sultanate: Slave dynasty (Qutubuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Razia Sultana, Balban, etc.); Khilji dynasty (Alauddin Khilji, Malik Kafur, etc.); Tughlaq dynasty (Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Muhammad bin Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq, etc.); Sayyid dynasty; Lodi dynasty (Bahlol Lodi, Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi); administration; economy; society; religion; art and architecture; literature and culture



  • Mamluk Dynasty: Mamluk sultans (Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb, etc.); administration; economy; society; religion; art and architecture; literature and culture



  • Regional Kingdoms: Vijayanagara Empire (Sangama dynasty, Saluva dynasty, Tuluva dynasty and Aravidu dynasty); Bahmani Kingdom and Deccan Sultanates (Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Berar, Bidar and Golconda); Bengal Sultanate; Kashmir Sultanate; Gujarat Sultanate



  • Bhakti Movement: Origin and development of Bhakti Movement in India; Alvars and Nayanars in South India; Ramanuja and Madhva in South India; Ramananda and Kabir in North India; Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in Bengal and Odisha; Vallabhacharya and Mirabai in Rajasthan and Gujarat;



; Sufi orders (Chishti, Suhrawardi, Qadiri, Naqshbandi, etc.); Sufi saints (Moinuddin Chishti, Nizamuddin Auliya, Baba Farid, etc.); Sufi literature and music


Modern India




Some of the topics covered in this sub-topic are:



  • Advent of Europeans in India: Portuguese, Dutch, English, French and Danish; establishment of trading companies; Anglo-French rivalry; Anglo-Mysore wars; Anglo-Maratha wars; Anglo-Sikh wars



  • British Expansion and Consolidation in India: Battle of Plassey; Battle of Buxar; Regulating Act of 1773; Pitt's India Act of 1784; Subsidiary Alliance; Doctrine of Lapse; Annexation of Punjab and Awadh



  • British Administration in India: Governor-Generals and Viceroys (Warren Hastings, Lord Cornwallis, Lord Wellesley, Lord Dalhousie, Lord Canning, Lord Curzon, Lord Mountbatten, etc.); civil services; judiciary; police; army; revenue system (Permanent Settlement, Ryotwari System and Mahalwari System); education system (Macaulay's Minute, Wood's Despatch, Hunter Commission, etc.); press and censorship



  • Economic Impact of British Rule in India: Drain of wealth; deindustrialization; commercialization of agriculture; famines; poverty and unemployment



  • Social and Cultural Impact of British Rule in India: Western education and modernization; social reforms and movements (Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Prarthana Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission, Theosophical Society, etc.); religious revivalism and communalism (Wahabi Movement, Deoband Movement, Aligarh Movement, Singh Sabha Movement, etc.); caste movements (Satyashodhak Samaj, Self-Respect Movement, etc.)



Bhagat Singh, Subhash Chandra Bose, etc.); peasant and tribal movements (Indigo Rebellion, Pabna Uprising, Moplah Rebellion, Bardoli Satyagraha, Tebhaga Movement, Santhal Rebellion, Birsa Munda Movement, etc.); trade union and labour movements (Ahmedabad Mill Strike, Bombay Mill Strike, All India Trade Union Congress, etc.); women's movements (Sarojini Naidu, Annie Besant, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay, etc.)


  • Constitutional Developments under British Rule in India: Indian Councils Act of 1861; Indian Councils Act of 1892; Indian Councils Act of 1909 (Morley-Minto Reforms); Government of India Act of 1919 (Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms); Government of India Act of 1935; Indian Independence Act of 1947



  • Freedom and Partition of India: Cripps Mission; Cabinet Mission; Mountbatten Plan; Partition of India and Pakistan; communal riots and violence; integration of princely states; accession of Kashmir



Geography




Physical Geography




Some of the topics covered in this sub-topic are:



  • The Earth: Origin and evolution of the Earth; shape and size of the Earth; rotation and revolution of the Earth; seasons and time zones



  • The Solar System: Sun and planets; satellites and asteroids; comets and meteors



  • Geomorphic Processes: Endogenic processes (diastrophism and volcanism) and exogenic processes (weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition); landforms formed by these processes



  • Continental Drift Theory: Alfred Wegener's hypothesis; evidences for continental drift; limitations of continental drift theory



  • Plate Tectonics Theory: Lithospheric plates; types of plate boundaries (divergent, convergent and transform); features and phenomena associated with plate boundaries (rift valleys, mid-oceanic ridges, trenches, island arcs, volcanoes, earthquakes, etc.)



  • Rocks: Types of rocks (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic); rock cycle; characteristics and examples of different rocks



  • Minerals: Definition and classification of minerals; physical properties and chemical composition of minerals; distribution and uses of important minerals



etc.); factors affecting the formation and evolution of landforms (tectonic, climatic, biotic, etc.)


  • Climatology: Study of climate and weather; elements and factors of climate; atmospheric structure and composition; atmospheric temperature and pressure; atmospheric circulation (winds, jet streams, etc.); moisture in the atmosphere (humidity, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, etc.); clouds and fog; air masses and fronts; cyclones and anticyclones



  • Oceanography: Study of oceans and seas; physical properties of ocean water (temperature, salinity, density, etc.); ocean currents (types, causes and effects); waves and tides; marine resources (living and non-living); coral reefs and mangroves



  • Biogeography: Study of distribution and diversity of life forms on Earth; biosphere and its components; ecosystem (structure and function); ecological succession; biomes (types, characteristics and distribution); biodiversity (levels, patterns and threats); conservation of biodiversity



  • Environmental Geography: Study of interaction between human and natural systems; environmental issues and challenges (global warming, climate change, ozone depletion, acid rain, desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, etc.); environmental management and sustainable development



Human Geography




Some of the topics covered in this sub-topic are:



  • Population Geography: Study of spatial distribution and dynamics of human population; population size, growth and structure; population density and distribution; population pyramids; demographic transition theory; population policies and programmes



  • Settlement Geography: Study of human settlements; types of settlements (rural and urban); patterns of settlements (linear, circular, rectangular, etc.); factors affecting the location and growth of settlements (physical, economic, social, etc.); urbanization (causes, effects and challenges); urban hierarchy and functions



secondary, tertiary and quaternary); factors affecting the location and development of economic activities (physical, human, technological, etc.); sectors of economy (agriculture, industry, services, etc.); regional and global trade; globalization and its impacts


  • Cultural Geography: Study of spatial variation and diversity of human cultures; culture and its components (language, religion, ethnicity, etc.); cultural regions and realms; cultural diffusion and interaction; cultural landscapes and heritage



  • Political Geography: Study of spatial aspects and implications of political phenomena; state and nation; boundaries and frontiers; geopolitics and geostrategy; forms of government; regionalism and separatism; international organizations and cooperation



  • Social Geography: Study of spatial patterns and processes of social phenomena; social structure and stratification; social groups and networks; social mobility and migration; social problems and conflicts; social justice and welfare



Indian Geography




Some of the topics covered in this sub-topic are:



  • Location and Extent of India: India's position on the globe; latitudinal and longitudinal extent; standard time; size and shape; neighbours and boundaries



  • Physiography of India: Major physiographic divisions of India (Himalayas, Indo-Gangetic Plain, Peninsular Plateau, Coastal Plains and Islands); characteristics and features of each division; drainage systems of India (Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers)



  • Climate of India: Factors influencing the climate of India; seasons of India (winter, summer, monsoon and post-monsoon); distribution and variability of rainfall in India; climatic regions of India (Koeppen's classification)



and conservation); energy resources (conventional and non-conventional)


  • Agriculture in India: Importance and problems of agriculture in India; types of farming (subsistence and commercial); cropping patterns and seasons; major crops and their distribution (rice, wheat, millets, pulses, oilseeds, sugarcane, cotton, jute, tea, coffee, etc.); irrigation and its types; green revolution and its impacts; agricultural regions of India



  • Industry in India: Importance and problems of industry in India; types of industries (agro-based and mineral-based); major industries and their distribution (iron and steel, cotton textiles, jute textiles, sugar, cement, etc.); industrial regions of India; industrial policies and programmes; industrial corridors and clusters



  • Transport and Communication in India: Importance and problems of transport and communication in India; modes of transport (roadways, railways, waterways and airways); transport networks and corridors; modes of communication (postal, telecommunication and mass media); transport and communication policies and programmes



  • Population and Settlement in India: Population size, growth and distribution; population density and sex ratio; population composition (age, literacy, religion, language, etc.); population problems and policies; types and patterns of rural settlements; types and patterns of urban settlements; urbanization trends and issues; smart cities mission



  • Regional Development and Planning in India: Need and objectives of regional development and planning in India; regional disparities and imbalances in India; regional development policies and programmes (Five Year Plans, NITI Aayog, etc.); regional planning models (river basin development, hill area development, drought-prone area development, etc.)



water scarcity, air pollution, noise pollution, solid waste management, biodiversity loss, climate change, etc.); environmental laws and regulations in India; environmental movements and initiatives in India (Chipko Movement, Narmada Bachao Andolan, Silent Valley Movement, etc.); environmental conservation and management in India


Conclusion




In this article, we have provided you with some useful tips on how to prepare General Studies for IAS Mains, as well as a link to download the General Studies Notes for IAS Mains PDF 17. This PDF contains concise and updated notes on all the topics covered in the GS syllabus for IAS Mains. You can use these notes as a reference material to revise and practice your GS concepts before the exam.


We hope that this article has helped you to understand the importance and scope of GS for IAS Mains, and has given you some guidance on how to study and write effective answers for GS questions. We wish you all the best for your IAS Mains exam.


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about General Studies for IAS Mains:



  • How many marks are allotted for General Studies in IAS Mains?



Answer: General Studies accounts for 1000 marks out of the total 1750 marks in IAS Mains. There are four General Studies Papers (GS-I, GS-II, GS-III and GS-IV), each carrying 250 marks.


  • What are the sources to study General Studies for IAS Mains?



Answer: Some of the sources to study General Studies for IAS Mains are:


  • NCERT textbooks from class 6 to 12



  • Standard reference books for each topic



Newspapers, magazines, reports, journals and websites for current


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